Grammaticalization form the entire process of go from a fully fledged lexical product so you can a great grammatical morpheme over periods of time

Grammaticalization form the entire process of go from a fully fledged lexical product so you can a great grammatical morpheme over periods of time


16 tu The newest REFLEXIVE PREFIX When you look at the ZULU – An excellent TYPOLOGICAL Perspective Sonja Age. Bosch On this page I am going to browse the the fresh new origins of the reflexive prefix in Zulu, using attention for the procedure of grammaticalization where lexemes become grammatical formatives. Once the reflexivization in a few Bantu dialects could be opposed, this article have been around in the type of a good typological study. During the Lehmann s () talk of phenomena which can be commonly referred to as reflexive, it’s fascinating to note he takes on five kinds of reflexives, particularly 0) autophoric nouns that are average nouns like looks, breath, spirit, direct you to ple, inside Sanscrit brand new noun dtman meaning breath, heart, plus Basque, this new noun burua definition head, are used to display the same as English mind. Autophoric nouns put as reflexives usually are followed closely by a possessive pronoun, as with next analogy from Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani energy:acc set:region placing stamina during the themselves (ii) reflexive nouns which can be nouns declaring the definition notice and nothing else, for instance the German selbst me personally and you may Finnish itse as depicted in the following the examples: 344

17 German (2) Ich komme selbst I’m coming me Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-quand? care Would you like the new tickets for your self? Within the dialects such as Finnish, Hungarian and you may Turkish reflexive nouns bring possessive affixes, while in most other languages like Italian language and/or Relationship dialects, such nouns aren’t generally speaking combined with possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns with an important purpose of it comes back into the niche, including the German sich from inside the: Italian language (4) Sie waschen sich They are washing on their own (iv) verbal reflexives which are verb affixes exhibiting your action for some reason has an effect on the subject, like in the next examples: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-pick he saw himself Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di son tidy-refl-at night man sparkling himself Lehmann () emphasizes the boundaries amongst the kinds is liquid and you can states that these five types of reflexive points are actually to your a level regarding increasing grammaticalization.

To phrase it differently, you can look for which given that a beneficial continuum off change which can become depicted as follows: 345

18 Lexical goods Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) brings examples in various dialects so you can illustrate the changes with took place or will always be taking place from 1 group so you’re able to another. The process of changes try affirmed of the Faltz () whom, for their morphological difference in a few chief kind of reflexives, particularly NP-reflexives that could integrate an affordable morpheme acting as head of the reflexive noun terms, and you can verbal reflexives, consisting of reflexive pronouns being cliticized on the verb, remarks: Dialects will get go from that rod on most other, indeed, particularly course are always from the NP-reflexive pole on the spoken reflexive pole. Within the Zulu reflexiveness are know in the form of an effective prefix and that actually precedes brand new verb stem. The fresh new reflexive prefix try invariable fit, which means it is an effective morphological figure which stays lingering despite the course to which their antecedent belongs. This is clearly portrayed regarding following the instances when you look at the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya new-man grizzly the guy-himself hit the kid hit himself (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini brand new-woman she-herself-get in-mirror Her sees by herself in the reflect On these advice -zi- is the reflexive morpheme and the strategies from strike and see are directed back through to the fresh new particular grammatical sufferers, that is, man and you may woman. It is interesting one within the generative degree, a life threatening perception is generated with the hidden construction from sentences containing reflexives, namely NP1 – V – NP1. At first glance, for example a houses was ungrammatical in the Bantu languages if the two NPs is actually co-referential and you may identical in form, elizabeth.grams. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho cheated Sipho During the Zulu instance a phrase is done grammatical from the installation from good reflexive prefix from the verb and you can the fresh new deletion of your co-referential noun. e.g. 346

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